Cancer is not a single disease with a single cause and a single type of treatment. There are more than 200 different types of cancer, each with its own name and treatment. Although cells in different parts of the body may look and work differently, most repair and reproduce themselves in the same way. Normally, cells divide in an orderly and controlled way. But if for some reason the process gets out of control, the cells carry on dividing and develop into a lump called a tumour. Tumours are either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Doctors can tell if a tumour is benign or malignant by removing a piece of tissue (biopsy) and examining a small sample of cells under a microscope.
In a benign tumour the cells do not spread to other parts of the body and so are not cancerous. However, they may carry on growing at the original site, and may cause a problem by pressing on surrounding organs.
In a malignant tumour the cancer cells have the ability to spread beyond the original area of the body. If the tumour is left untreated, it may spread into surrounding tissue. Sometimes cells break away from the original (primary) cancer. They may spread to other organs in the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
The lymphatic system is part of the immune system – the body’s natural defence against infection and disease. It’s made up of organs such as bone marrow, the thymus, the spleen, and lymph nodes. The lymph nodes throughout the body are connected by a network of tiny lymphatic tubes (ducts). The lymphatic system has two main roles: it helps to protect the body from infection and it drains fluid from the tissues. When the cancer cells reach a new area they may go on dividing and form a new tumour. This is known as a secondary cancer or a metastasis.
Primary bone cancer is a tumour that starts growing inside a bone, as opposed to secondary bone cancer which is when cancer spreads from another part of the body into surrounding bone.
The most common symptom of bone cancer is bone pain that usually gets worse over time and can feel more painful during the night time.
There are four most common types of cancer – although all types of bonce cancer are very rare.
- Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer. Most cases develop in children and young people who are between the ages of five and 20, making it the third most common cancer in young people (after leukemia and brain tumors). Osteosarcoma usually develops in the larger bones, such as the thigh bone (femur) or the shin bone (tibia).
- Ewing’s sarcoma usually develops in children and young people aged between 10 and 20, although 1 in 10 cases develop in people who are over 20. It usually develops in the pelvis, thigh bone or shin bone.
- Chondrosarcoma – this type of bone cancer usually develops in adults who are between the ages of 40 and 50. The most common sites for chondrosarcoma to develop are the pelvis, thigh bone, upper arm bone, shoulder blade (scapula) and the ribs.
- Spindle cell sarcoma – this is very similar to osterosarcoma in terms of its symptoms and treatment, but it affects older adults aged 40 or over.
Bone pain is the most common symptom of bone cancer. It usually begins with a feeling of tenderness in the affected bone, and then gradually progresses to a persistent ache that often feels worse during the night and when using the affected bone.
In cases of Ewing sarcoma, bone pain is a symptom that usually gets worse quite quickly.
Bone pain that is caused by bone cancer is sometimes wrongly mistaken for arthritis in adults and “growing pains” in children and teenagers.
If you have bone cancer, you may also experience swelling and redness (inflammation) or detect a noticeable lump on or around the affected bone. If the bone is near a joint, the swelling may make using the joint difficult.
In some cases the cancer can weaken a bone so it can become fractured or broken after a minor injury or fall.
Less common symptoms of bone cancer include:
- a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above
- unexplained weight loss
- sweating; usually at night
Bone cancer is a poorly understood condition and, as a result, only a small number of risk factors for the condition have been identified. These include:
- Fast-growing bones – as the majority of cases of bone cancer occur in teenagers it is thought that the rapid growth spurt that occurs during puberty may in some way make bone tissue more vulnerable to cancer.
- Higher rates of bone cancer have also been found in certain breeds of dogs that experience rapid bone growth.
- Previous exposure to high doses of radiation such as undergoing radiotherapy
- Paget’s disease of the bone, which is an uncommon bone condition that causes weakening of the bones. However, less than 1 in 100 people with the condition will develop bone cancer in later life.
- Rare genetic conditions such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, which affects around 1 in every 142,000 people.
- A history of retinoblastoma. This is a rare type of childhood cancer which develops in the eye. People who have had this condition have an increased risk of developing bone cancer.
Research has also found that babies who are born with an umbilical hernia are three times more likely to develop Ewing’s sarcoma than others.
An umbilical hernia is where tissue pokes through the part of the abdomen near to the belly button. It is thought that as an unborn baby develops, the unknown factors that cause the hernia to develop may also contribute to an increased risk of Ewing sarcoma. It is unclear why this is the case.
However, the increased risk is still very small as only one in 110,000 children with an umbilical hernia will go on to develop Ewing’s sarcoma.
It is important to not add further toxicity to your system so try to adhere to the following:
- Do not consume any artificial sweeteners, such as Splenda, NutraSweet or Aspartame
- Do not consume high fructose corn syrup or mono-sodium glutamate.
- Do not drink any carbonated beverages.
- Avoid all fast food restaurants.
- Avoid all canned food.
- Eliminate conventional dairy products. The best dairy products are raw, unpasteurised and homogenised dairy from grass fed cows. If this is unavailable, then buy organic dairy.
- Avoid conventional beef. The best beef is organic grass fed beef.
The second best is organic meat; this includes beef, veal, lamb, chicken and turkey.
Avoid all foods that are high in unhealthy saturated and trans-fats, hydrogenated and partially-hydrogenated fats and oils, margarine, and shortening. Eliminate refined white flour, which is found in the majority of foods found on a typical grocery store shelf, including bread, bagels, crackers, cakes, cookies, and other baked good, pasta. Also avoid alcohol, caffeine, simple carbohydrates, sugars and sugar products, foods that are overly spicy, and all processed and commercial “junk” food. Stay clear of all inorganic pasteurized milk and dairy products, including yogurt and cheese; best to eat only raw, organic dairy products.
Empower yourself, and choose a diet emphasizing organic whole foods, including plenty of fresh, raw fruits and vegetables, oats, whole grains, such as brown rice, quinoa and buckwheat. Include a variety of preferably soaked, nuts and seeds, especially pumpkin and sunflower seeds. Minimize your intake of red meat; though be sure to consume adequate amounts of organic, free-range poultry, bison and wild-caught fish. Eat generous quantities of both raw and lightly steamed organic vegetables and large fresh salads daily. Preferably, cook with virgin coconut butter/oil and use extra virgin olive oil, high lignin flax seed oil and hemp seed oil as condiments on veggies and as the base for your daily salad dressing. Throughout the day, drink plenty of pure, filtered water, and avoid drinking—as well as bathing, and showering in—unfiltered tap water, as tap water contains heavy metals and pesticide residues that can settle in high concentrations in the body.
The raw food diet is a food plan that can be of great benefit if you suffer from breast cancer. Using the guidelines outlined above as a base camp for a clean and healthy diet, one can then transition into a raw food diet as desired. Raw food generates rapid results because of its ability to thoroughly detoxify and liberate your body’s previously untapped energy.
The diet mainly consists of raw fruits, vegetables, and soaked and sprouted nuts and seeds, supplemented with daily consumption of fresh green juices made from a variety of vegetables such as celery, romaine lettuce, spinach, carrot, kale, parsley, and an ever rotating seasonal selection of other organic veggies. Raw foodists enjoy salads, dehydrated flax crackers, seed and nut patés, blended soups, smoothies, and marinated veggies, often mixed with soaked sea vegetables. Since little to no cooked food is consumed, the raw diet has the advantage of instantly eliminating many common allergens. No cooked wheat or wheat by-products are consumed, and generally dairy is omitted, though some might choose to eat moderate quantities of raw goat or sheep milk products, often in the form of a fermented food, such as homemade raw kefir or yogurt.
Dr Gabriel Cousins, at the Tree of Life Center, endorses the raw food plan as the ultimate healing diet, and offers 100% raw food meals at his healing retreat in Patagonia, Arizona. An important note when choosing a raw food diet: there is an issue of trade-offs. You might miss cooked foods, though you will not miss cancer. More times than not the raw food diet presents itself as an incredible tool that can be used to quickly transition from a serious health challenge into a healing process, ultimately resulting in greater health and well-being.
- Take Vitamin D3 50,000-100,000 International Units a day nc.vitaminstrength.com for periods of 4 weeks at a time.
- Wholefood supplements are the best way of ensuring your nutritional needs are met.
- Take an Omega 3 supplement:
- Vitamin D has been shown to be a key factor in healing cancer. Take Vitamin D3 50,000-100,000 International Units a day nc.vitaminstrength.com for a period of up to 4 weeks.
- Wholefood supplements are the best way of ensuring your nutritional needs are met.
- Omega 3s
Hemp Seed Oil
- Selenium – an essential trace vitamin which acts as a deterrent against cancer in general.
Research now shows that massage can be very beneficial to those with cancer, specifically for managing pain and depression. The gentle massage used during an aromatherapy massage promotes relaxation and helps to eliminate toxins from the body. Even a simple hand massage can have a positive effect.
The essential oils of grapefruit (citrus paradisii), orange (citrus senensis) and lemon (citrus limonum) contain D-limonene, which has shown to have anti-tumor properties, chemotherapeutic activity and low toxicity. Note that these citrus oils are photo-toxic and should not be used topically on people with skin cancer. When possible, organic essential oils should be used. These citrus oils, as well as neroli essential oil, are also antidepressants and help with anxiety. The hydrosol of neroli can be used as a body, room or linen spray. In addition to the citrus oils, other essential oils and hydrosols, which aid with killing of cancer cells include ginger (zingiber officinalis) essential oil which can be inhaled or taken internally in water, to ease nausea.
The essential oil and hydrosol of frankincense (boswellia carteri) has shown anti-cancer, antimicrobial and antioxidative activity. Frankincense can also distinguish between normal and cancerous cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Sweet fern (comptonia peregrina) and sweet gale (myrica gale) hydrosols can be combined and used topically as a compress or diluted in water and drank throughout the day. Both plants have shown to be cytotoxic (toxic to cells) against human lung and colon cancer cell lines.
Greenland moss, aka Labrador Tea (ledum greonlandicum) is one of the most powerful therapeutic hydrosols and only needs to be about 10% of the blend to be effective. It is currently in experimental stages for use with liver cancer and has shown anticancer activity against malignant lung and colon tumours.
Use 4 drops of essential oil per 25ml of carrier oil.
To ensure positive results, always check that the essential oil is a 100% pure plant distillation and that it comes from a reputable source.
Herbs that have proven to be beneficial in easing cancer symptoms include Artemisia, pokeroot, periwinkle, mistletoe (Viscum album), colchicines, hemlock, Berberis aquifolium, foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), and burdock root. Hoxsey formula (an herbal formula, developed by the late Harry Hoxsey, N.D.) is recommended, as is Essiac, a traditional cancer remedy of Native Americans. The herbal spice tumeric, which contains curcumin, an anti-cancer agent, can also be helpful, as can astragalus and maitake, a medicinal mushroom. Fennel tea can help to reduce the effects of chemotherapy and radiation.
Other useful herbs for helping to address co-factors related to cancer, such as immune deficiencies, include Cat’s claw (uno de gato), Echinacea, garlic, green tea, oregano oil, Pau d’arco, and nettle root. Milk thistle can be helpful because of its ability to detoxify the liver and improve hormone balance. Also consider Chimaphila umbellata, or pipsissewa, (an evergreen plant) horsetail, and uva ursi, which all have potent antiseptic properties. Betulinic Acid from Birch trees has been shown to block the growth of melanoma and thuja tincture has served as a successful therapy for many cancer cases, as has bromelain, phenolic antioixidants from mint, centella extract from gotu kola (hydrocotyle centella), perillyl alcohol from lavender flowers, pollen from honeybees, pearl barley (hordeum vulgare), reishi mushroom (ganoderma lucidum), shiitake mushroom (lentinula elodes), cauliflower (brassica oleracea), wax gourd (benincasa hispida), calendula (calendula officinalis), chaparral (larrea divaricata and larrea tridentate), white mulberry (morus alba), Japanese pepper (piper futokadsura), thyme (thymus serpyllum), Chinese cucumber (trichosanthes kirilowii) and stinging nettle (urtica dioica.)
Combine red cabbage, celery, and lettuce juice, and drink 8 ounces twice a day. Carrot, cucumber, beet, radish, and garlic juice can also be helpful Combine grape, black cherry and blackcurrant. Wheatgrass juice is also beneficial, as is asparagus juice and fresh apple juice. Fresh green juices are an important nutrient dense boost to the diet; create new combinations of vegetables, and discover your personal favourites.
Exercise regularly, at least three times a week for 45-60 minutes each session. If you smoke, stop, and keep away from exposure to second hand smoke. Also avoid drinking alcohol, coffee, and all products that contain caffeine. Take care to properly manage stress and reduce your overall stress levels, as stress can negatively affect healthy immune function. In addition, drink an 8-ounce glass of pure, filtered water every two hours during the day to help flush out your urinary tract and keep properly hydrated.
Soybeans and other legumes contain diadzein and genistein, naturally occurring phytoestrogens which block the action of oestrogen in the body, slowing the growth of hormonally-dependent tumours. Genistein also blocks the activity of certain oncogenes (chromosomal genes believed to initiate cancer.)
Broccoli does two jobs as a cancer fighter. It contains the anti-tumour compounds found in cruciferous vegetables as well as a fair amount of folate, a B vitamin that protects cells from DNA damage.
Cucumbers are known to contain lariciresinol, pinoresinol, and secoisolariciresinol. These three lignans have a strong history of research in connection with reduced risk of several cancer types.